Other metaphors that are used for downloading are infringement, theft and piracy. Moreover, there are underlying mindsets which guide the whole of copyright, according to Stefan Larsson.
Uma (in)certa antropologia
One such mindset is the idea that creation is a process undertaken by sole geniuses and not so much in a cultural context. This is the case both online and offline. Stefan Larsson has also studied the consequences when public perception of the law, or social norms, is not in line with what the law says.
One consequence is that the State needs to exercise more control and issue more severe penalties in order to ensure that the law is followed. The European trend in copyright law is heading in this direction. Among other things, it is being made easier to track what individuals do on the Internet. The fight for this is taking place, at least partially, through metaphorical expressions for underlying conceptions, but also through practical action on the role of anonymity online.
Imagine as descobertas cruciais que outros cientistas poderiam ter feito se esse genoma tivesse sido carregado num banco de dados aberto.
ScienceDaily Oct. The anonymous survey of more than 1, women on 18 message boards opens a new window into who is using the forums and why.
The researchers were surprised to find that only half of the women surveyed were in their first year of loss after a pregnancy. Many were still coping with the emotional impacts five, 10 and even 20 years later. A second unexpected finding was that only 2 percent of survey respondents were African American, despite nearly 60 percent of African Americans having internet access and despite black women having twice the risk of stillbirth as white women.
Gold, M. Others appreciated the ease and convenience of the Internet and their ability to spend more time composing their thoughts than they would be able to in a face-to-face conversation. Most participants agreed that boards should have a moderator or facilitator, and that health care professionals should participate. Of the women who answered the question, 82 percent said they had learned new medical information from one of the forums.
Gold and her colleagues are currently pursuing similar research with bereaved parents who attend in-person support groups and plan to compare and contrast the results. The social networking site Facebook has more than million active users worldwide. Nearly 30 million of these are believed to be in the UK.
The site allows people to keep in touch online with a network of friends.
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The sizes of individual networks vary considerably, and some users have only a handful of online friends while others have over a thousand; however, whether this variability is reflected in the size of real-world social networks has not been clear. This has led to a lot of unsupported speculation that the internet is somehow bad for us. This should allow us to start asking intelligent questions about the relationship between the internet and the brain — scientific questions, not political ones.
Their findings, which they replicated in a further group of 40 students, are published October 20 in the journal Proceedings of the Royal Society B. Professor Rees and colleagues found a strong connection between the number of Facebook friends an individual had and the amount of grey matter the brain tissue where the processing is done in several regions of the brain. One of these regions was the amygdala, a region associated with processing memory and emotional responses. A study published recently showed that the volume of grey matter in this area is larger in people with a larger network of real-world friends — the new study shows that the same is true for people with a larger network of online friends.
The size of three other regions — the right superior temporal sulcus, the left middle temporal gyrus and the right entorhinal cortex — also correlated with online social networks but did not appear to correlate with real-world networks. The superior temporal sulcus has a role in our ability to perceive a moving object as biological, and structural defects in this region have been identified in some children with autism. The entorhinal cortex, meanwhile, has been linked to memory and navigation — including navigating through online social networks. Finally, the middle temporal gyrus has been shown to activate in response to the gaze of others and so is implicated in perception of social cues.
The exciting question now is whether these structures change over time — this will help us answer the question of whether the internet is changing our brains. Previous studies have looked at this, but only in relatively small sample sizes. This new study illustrates how well-designed investigations can help us begin to understand whether or not our brains are evolving as they adapt to the challenges posed by social media.
Last year Eli Pariser, president of the board of the liberal-activist site MoveOn. A heavy Facebook user, he had become friends—at least on Facebook—with an assortment of conservative thinkers and pundits. As a serious thinker, he wanted to have his opinions on current events challenged by those with opposing political ideologies.
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But it struck Mr. Had his sources of conservative thought stopped posting? Had they unfriended him? No, Facebook had quietly stopped inserting their updates into his news feed on the site.
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Had the social-networking giant figured out that he was a liberal? For Mr. Pariser, the algorithm change meant that his news feed was filtered to let him know about only the mostly left-leaning people with whom he bantered, leaving out conservative voices that he simply monitored. Pariser it effectively muffled the people he most disagreed with but wanted to hear.
This sifting-out of seemingly dead connections—which might strike many people as a wonderful service—spurred Mr. Pariser to undertake a months-long exploration of the growing trend of personalized content on websites.
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Not only on Facebook and Google, but on almost every major site on the Web. The two were shown strikingly different pages—one full of news about the disaster, the other mostly investor information about the energy company. Personalization is meant to make Internet users happy: It shows them information that mathematical calculations indicate is more likely than generalized content to be of interest. As a result, Google users click on more of the results that they get.
But Mr. To Mr. Pariser, these well-intended filters pose a serious threat to democracy by undermining political debate. The Internet long ago became overwhelming. Filters help make it manageable without our having to do the work of sorting through its content entirely by ourselves. What to do?
But his closing chapters fumble around in search of a solution—from individuals, from companies like Google or from government oversight.taylor.evolt.org/cepu-vilardevs-conocer-mujeres.php
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How do you tell the Internet to back it off a bit on the custom content? For now, the best Mr. The search results that came back were all nearly identical. To tell the truth, we were kind of disappointed. Everybody starts talking about themselves. They say what they would have done if they had been the plaintiff or the defendant. They bring up anecdote after anecdote.
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It can take hours to get back to the points of law that the judge has instructed you to consider. We Americans seem to have lost the ability to talk about anything but our own experiences. Historically, the hallmarks of an uneducated person were the lack of ability to think critically, to use deductive reasoning, to distinguish the personal from the universal.
Now that seems an apt description of many Americans. The same way we seem to get everywhere today: the Internet. The Internet has allowed us to segregate ourselves based on our interests. All cat lovers over here. For many of us, what we believe has become the most important organizing element in our lives.
Once we all had common media experiences: Walter Cronkite, Ed Sullivan, a large daily newspaper.
Now each of us can create a personal media network — call it the iNetwork — fed by the RSS feeds of our choosing. The Internet rewards shallow thinking: One search leads to thousands of results that skim over the surface of a subject. The experience has been designed to reward speed and variety, not depth. And there is tangible evidence, based on studies of brain scans, that the medium is changing our physical brains, strengthening the synapses and areas used for referential thinking while weakening the areas used for critical thinking.
And when we diminish our ability to think critically, we, in essence, become less educated. Less capable of reflection and meaningful conversation.